It is further characterized by the bully repeatedly using the higher social status they have over the victim to exert power and to hurt the victim.
Erin Grinshteyn and David Hemenway, "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010," American Journal of Medicine, 2015.
Adult bullies who engage in these behaviors are males 60% of the time.
While men who bully tend to victimize both genders equally, women bullies target other women about 80% of the time.
Most victims of cyber bullying have also been victims of school bullying.
Studies show that teachers often underestimate how much bullying is occurring at their school since they only see about 4% of bullying incidents that occur. "Bullying a review: presentations to an adolescent psychiatric service and within a school for emotionally and behaviorally disturbed children." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 5.4 Oct.